Yet, many of the efforts quelled popular discontent rather than producing basic changes, and the resulting reforms were often co-opted by business interests to serve their own interests. The same can be said of the most recent progressive era, led in Vermont by Bernie Sanders.
On March 3, 2009 voters in Burlington again chose a mayor. Incumbent Bob Kiss, the third progressive to hold the office over the previous 28 years, defeated Democratic, Republican, Green and Independent challengers. Three years later, however, local voters elected Miro Weinberger, the first Democratic Party mayor in over 30 years. To put the 2009 election and the Burlington progressive movement in perspective, this eight-part essay looks at the process that began with the election of Sanders on March 3, 1981 and subsequently changed the face of Vermont politics.
Chapter One: The Sanders Revoluton
Chapter Two: Rhetoric & Reality
Chapter Three: Identity Crisis
Chapter Four: Beyond Bernie
Chapter Five: Quality Control
Chapter Six: Pragmatic Populism
Chapter Seven: Mixed Messages
Chapter Eight: Small Changes